A Study On Social Media Usage Among Private University Students in Klang Valley
Keywords:social media usage, self-esteem, effects, self appearance
The usage of social media has made everyone’s life easier in connecting to the world. One can check Twitter, log onto Facebook or use Instagram anytime without limitation. The purpose of this study is to examine the usage and effects of social media daily; explain the perception on social media; and explain the importance of social media to self-esteem. The study employed a cross-sectional survey using self-administered questionnaire which was distributed online to a total of 240 respondents from Monash University, Taylor’s University and Asia Pacific University (APU) who use social media via wired and mobile devices. In terms of the usage and effect of social media, results found that a significant number of university students owned more than three social media accounts and spent between three to five hours (37.1%) on social media daily. This shows that the university students have high usage on social media. The study further found that majority of the university students accessed and look through their peer’s social media account for comparison. Majority of the respondents perceive social media as somewhat important and important in their lives. This indicates that the university students perceived the importance of social media to their social life. The findings for importance of social media to self- esteem showed the respondents agreed social media have helped them to boost self- esteem. The study demonstrated that the students have high self-esteem when they spend more time on social media due to high exposure to social media content and frequently exposed to favorable pictures of others. However the students who feel satisfied with themselves and declined to feel as a failure indicates of high self-esteem.
Clark, M., Fine, M., & Scheuer, C. (2017). Relationship quality in higher education marketing: the role of social media engagement. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 27(1), 40-58.
Fardouly, J., Diedrichs, P., Vartanian, L. and Halliwell, E. (2014). Social comparisons on social media: The impact of Facebook on young women’s body image concerns and mood. [online] psy.unsw.edu.au. Available at: http://www2.psy.unsw.edu.au/Users/lvartanian/Publications/Fardouly,%20Diedrichs,%20Vartanian,%20&%20Halliwell%20(2015).pdf [Accessed 13 Jun. 2017
Forest, A. L., & Wood, J. V. (2012). When social networking is not working: Individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook. Psychological Science, 23: 295–302.
Haferkamp, N., Eimler, S.C., Papadakis, A., & Kruck, J.V. (2012). Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus? Examining Gender Differences in Self-Presentation on Social Networking Sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(2), 91-98.
Jan, M., Soomro, S. and Ahmad, N. (2017). Impact of Social Media on Self-Esteem. European Scientific Journal, 13(23).
Junco, R. (2012). The relationship between frequency of Facebook use, participation in Facebook activities, and student engagement. Computers & Education 58(1), 162-171.
Kim, J. & Lee, J.R. (2011). The Facebook Paths to Happiness: Effects of the Number of Facebook Friends and Self-Presentation on Subjective Well-Being. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(6), 359-364.
Lup, K., Trub, L., & Rosenthal, L. (2015). Instagram #instasad?: Exploring associations among Instagram use, depressive symptoms, negative social comparison, and strangers followed. Social media predictors of depression 27 Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(5), 247-252.
Mayer-Schönberger, V., & Cukier, K. (2013). Big data: A revolution that will transform how we live, work and think. New York, NY: HoughtonMifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.
Perloff, R. (2014). Social Media Effects on Young Women’s Body Image Concerns: Theoretical Perspectives and an Agenda for Research. [online] is.muni.cz. Available at: http://is.muni.cz/el/1423/podzim2014/PSY221P121/um/Perloff2014.SocialMediaEffectsBodyImage.BID.pdf [Accessed 12 Feb. 2017].
Pew Research Center. (2017). Social Media Fact Sheet. [online] Available at: http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheet/social-media/ [Accessed 12 Feb. 2017].
Steers, M., Wickham, R. & Acitelli, L. (2014). Seeing everyone else’s highlight reels: how facebook usage is linked to depressive symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 33(8): 701-731.
Toma, C. L. (2013). Feeling better but doing worse: Effects of Facebook self-presentation on implicit self-esteem and cognitive task performance. Media Psychology, 16(2), 199-220.
Tosun, L. P. (2012). Motives for Facebook use and expressing the “true self” on the Internet. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1510 –1517.
Tufekci, Z. (2008). Grooming, gossip, Facebook and MySpace: What can we learn about these sites from those who won't assimilate? Information, Communication & Society, 11(4), 544-564.
Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Roberts, L. R., and Eckles, K. (2014). Social comparison. social media, and self-esteem. Psychol. Pop. Media Cult. 3, 206–222.
Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Okdie, B. M , Eckles, K. and Franz, B. (2015). Who compares and despairs? The effect of social comparison orientation on social media use and its outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences. 86, 249–256
Walther, J.B., Van Der Heide, B., Kim S.Y., Westerman, D & Tong, S.T. (2008). The role of friends’ appearance and behavior on evaluations of individuals on Facebook: Are we known by the company we keep? Human Communication Research 34: 28-49.
Wang Hai Zhen, Gaskin, J and Hawk, S (2017). The mediating roles of upward social comparison and self-esteem and the moderating role of social comparison orientation in the association between social networking site usage and subjective well-being. Frontier in Psychology. Vol. 8
Zuo, A. (2014). Measuring Up: Social Comparisons on Facebook and Contributions to Self-Esteem and Mental Health. [online] deepblue.lib.umich.edu. Available at: https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/107346/zuo.finalthesis.pdf [Accessed 12 Feb. 2017].
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.